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The( )ofyellowandblueformgreen.

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Ourhighlytrainedunemploymentinsurancespecialistsareavailable9:00-20:00MondaytoFriday&10:00-18:00Saturday.Onlinequotesavailable24/7.

TroublewithTeamwork

MaryOwenexaminestheroleandefficiencyofteams

Recruiterssaythatcandidateswhocangiveexamplesofworktheyhavedoneasmembersofasuccessfulteamareinasstrongapositionasthosewhocanpointtosignificantindividualachievement.Indeed,toomuchofthelattermaysuggestthatthepersonconcernedisnota'teamplayer'-oneofthemoreseriousfailingsinthebookofmanagement.

Theimportanceofbeingateamplayerisasideeffectoftheincreasinginteractionacrossdepartmentsandfunctionaldivides.Insteadofpushingreports,paperworkanddecisionsaroundtheorganisation,'teamsprovideadynamicmeetingplacewhereideascanbesharedandexpertisemorecarefullytargetedatimportantbusinessissues,'saysSteveGardner,inhisbookKeyManagementConcepts.Headds,'Globalisationhasaddedafurtherdimensiontoteamwork.Multinationalteamsnowstudypolicydecisionsinthelightoftheirimpactonthelocalmarket.'

Butisteamworkingbeingoverdone?'Somemanagersareonasmanyassevenoreightdifferentteams',saysDrCathyBandy,apsychologistwhorecentlyranaconferenceonthesubject.'Theytakeupsomuchtimethatmanagerscan'tgetonwithcoretasks.'Formingteamsandhavingmeetingshas,shesays,becomeanendinitself,almostregardlessofpurpose.Thereisalsothedangerofanunhealthydesiretokeeptheteamgoingaftertheworkhasbeendone.'Peoplefeeltheneedtobelong,andteammembershipcanprovideakindofpsychologicalsupport.'

Theideabehindteamworkingisthat,whentherightgroupofpeopleisbroughttogether,a'force'developswhichisgreaterthanthesumoftheirindividualtalents.Thisisoftentrueinsport,wheregoodplayerscanreachunexpectedheightsasmembersofaninternationalteam.However,fewbusinesssituationshaveasclearasetofobjectives,orasclearcriteriaofsuccessorfailure,aswinningamatch.

'Inbusiness,everyoneneedstobeclearaboutwhatthechallengeisandwhetherateamistherightwayofapproachingit',saysSteveGardner.'Unfortunately,peoplefocusinsteadonwhothemembersoftheteamshouldbeandwhatrolestheyaretoplay'DrBandyagrees.'Thereisalwaysadangerthatteamscanturnintocommittees,'shesays.'Inalotofsituations,oneortwoindividualswouldbemuchmoreeffective.'

Sowhatmakesasuccessfulteam?Therearesomegeneralqualitiesthathavebeenidentified.SteveGardnerrecommendsthatineveryteamthereshouldbesomeonewhoisgoodatresearchingideasandanotherwhoisgoodatshootingdownimpracticalones.Thereshouldbethosewhocanresolvethetensionsthatnaturallyoccurinateamandotherswhoarefocusedongettingthejobdone.Also,providingaclearandachievabletargetattheoutsetisthebestwayofensuringthattheteamwillmoveontogreaterthings.

13、Whatpointdoesthewritermakeaboutteamworkingatthebeginningofthearticle?

AItisthemostsuccessfulformofmanagement.

BIthaschangedtherecruitmentprocedureincompanies.

CWell-runteamsstillallowindividualstodemonstratetheirtalents.

DBeingateamplayerisnowconsideredanessentialmanagementskill.

14、Accordingtothearticle,teamworkdevelopedwithincompaniesasaresponseto

Amodernofficedesign.

Bchangingworkpractices.

Careductioninadministrativetasks.

Dtheexpansionofinternationalbusiness.

15、Inthethirdparagraph,DrBandysuggeststhat

Amanyemployeesdonotenjoyworkinginteams.

Bsomemanagersarenotveryeffectiveteamleaders.

Csometeamsarecreatedunnecessarily.

Dfewteamsarewellorganised.

16、Accordingtothewriter,teamworkismoreeffectiveinthefieldofsportbecausetheplayers

Aknowwhattheywanttoachieve.

Baremorecompetitivebynature.

Chavemoreindividualtalent.

Dcanbedrivenbynationalpride.

17、SteveGardnerandDrBandyagreethatwhenabusinessteamiscreatedpeopledonotpayenoughattentionto

Athestructureoftheteam.

Balternativestotheteam.

Cselectingtheteammembers.

Ddirectingtheteam'sactivities.

18、WhatisSteveGardner'sadviceonoperatingasuccessfulteam?

AMaintainaflexibleapproachtomembership.

BAllowpersonalitiestodevelopwithintheteam.

CSelectpeoplewhofitnaturallyintocertainroles.

DMakeeveryefforttoavoidconflictbetweenmembers.

SectionC

WhatalovelyplaceXeroxistoworkKimMoloney,aclientservicesexecutive,can’tsayenoughnicethingsaboutheremployer.‘It’saveryspecialenvironment,’shesays.‘PeopledescribeXeroxasafamilyandIwasamazedatthenumberofpeoplewhohaveworkedhereforsolong.’It’stemptingtotakeMoloney’scommentswithapinchofsalt,especiallyconsideringthatwhenyou’vebeenworkingsomewhereforonlytwoyears,asshehasatXerox,everyoneseemsoldandestablished.Butthere’struthbehindherenthusiasm.

TakeCarolePalmer,thegroupresourcesdirector.ShejoinedXeroxin1978asatempandhasbeeninherpresentroleforsevenyears.‘Xeroxhasbeengoodtomeovertheyears,’shesays.‘Ithassupportedmethroughqualifications…andlastyearItookpartinthevice-presidentincumbentprogram.’HumanresourcesistakenseriouslyatXerox,Palmersays,andthecompanyhasapolicyofpromotingfromwithin(whichwouldexplainMoloney’samazementathercolleagues’longevity).ThecompanytakesononlyfifteentotwentygraduateseachyearandMoloneywaspartofanintakewhojoinedhavingalreadyacquiredacoupleofyears’workexperience.ShestartedasaprojectmanagerforXeroxGlobalServicesbeforemovingintosales.Nowherresponsibilityisto‘growandmaintaincustomerrelationships’.

MoloneyisbasedattheheadofficeinUxbridge.‘It’sgreatintermsofworkingenvironment,’shesays.‘We’vejustgotanewproviderinthecanteenand…wehavebrainstormingroomsandbreakoutareas.’MuchofMoloney’sroleisvisitingclients,soshedoesn’thaveapermanentdeskatheadoffice.‘I’mahot-desker,whichisgoodbecauseyougettositwithdifferentpeopleinthehot-deskareas.Andyou’regivenaplacetostoreyourthings.’Headofficestaffnumbersbetween1,200and1,500people,Palmersays.ThecompanyhasfourothermainofficesintheUK.Thenatureoftheorganization,whichencompassessalesandmarketing,globalservices(thebiggestdivision),developingmarkets,researchanddevelopmentandmanufacturing,meansthattheopportunitiesatthecompanyvaryfromserviceengineerstosalesrolesandconsultants.

Perksincludeafinal-salarypensionschemeandvariousdiscountschemes.Therewardandrecognitionschemeisalittledifferent,andrathernice:‘Eachmanagerhasabudgeteveryyeartorecognizeandrewardstaff,’Palmersays.‘Itcanbeintheformofamealfortwo,orabottleofwine.Itcanbeupto£1,000.There’stherecognition,andthenthere’sputtingmoneybehindit.’Moloney,however,likesthenon-cashrewards.‘Xeroxtakescareofallitsstaffbutitalsorecognizesthepeoplewhoputintheaddedeffort,’shesays.‘Itoffersonce-in-a-lifetimeincentivetrips,andrecentlyIorganizedasailingtripformyteam.’

Theideaofworkingabroadwiththecompanyappealstoher,andshesaysthathercareergoalistobepartoftheseniormanagementteam.Here’sanotheremployee,itwouldseem,whoisinitforthelonghaul.

()1.Thejournalistofthisarticlethinksthat.

A.staffatXeroxarenottellingthetruthabutthecompany.

B.Xeroxoffersgreatbenefitstostaff.

C.Xeroxisthebestcompanyintheworld.

D.Xeroxhasthebestworkingenvironment.

()2.Thecompanytendstofinditsnewmanager.

A.onlyformgraduatesB.ontrainingcourses

C.fromexistingstaffD.fromjobmarkets

()3.Whatdoesthephrase“totakeon”inthesentence“Thecompanytakesononlyfifteentotwentygraduateseachyearand…”ofthesecondparagraphmean?.

A.TotrainB.Toemploy

C.TointerviewD.Tomaintain(A)

()4.Aswellasrecognizingitsstaffthroughpromotion,Xerox.

A.givescashbonuses

B.givesunpaidleavetotaketripsofalifetime.

C.providesanumberofperks.

D.provideshugeend-of-yearbonuses.

()5.OnecommonfeatureofXeroxstaffisthattheytend.

A.toworkhardB.togetpromoted

C.worklongerhourseachdayD.nottochangeemployer

The( )ofyellowandblueformgreen.

Afriendofminewasfondofdrawinghorse.Hedrewthehorsesverywell,buthealwaysbeganthetail.NowitistheWesternruletobeginattheheadofthehorse,thatiswhyIwassurprised.Itstruckmethatitcouldnotreallymakeanydifferencewhethertheartistbeginsattheheadorthetailorthebelly(肚子)orthefootofthehorse,ifhereallyknowshisbusiness.Andmostgreatartistswhoreallyknowtheirbusinessdonotfollowotherpeople’srule.Theymaketheirownrules.Everyoneofthemdoeshisworkinawaypeculiar(奇特的)tohimself;andthepeculiaritymeansonlythathefindsitmoreeasytoworkinthatway.

Nowtheverysamethingistruetoliterature(文学).Andthequestion,"HowshallIbegin?"onlymeansthatyouwanttobeginattheheadinsteadofbeginningatthetailorsomewhereelse.Thatis,youarenotyetexperienced(有经验的)enoughtotrusttoyourownpowers.Whenyoubecomemoreexperiencedyouwill

neveraskthequestion,andIthinkthatyouwilloftenbeginatthetail--thatistosay,youwillwritetheendofthestorybeforeyouhaveeventhoughtofthebeginning.

1.Afriendofthewriter’sdrewthehorses____.

A.verywell

B.inthewayofwesternrule

C.inthewayofhisownrule

D.alloftheabove

2.Thewriterwassurprisedbecause____.

A.theartistbegantodrawattheheadofthehorse

B.theartistbegantodrawatthetailofthehorse

C.theartistmadehisownrule

D.theartistdidnotfollowotherpeople’srule

3.Youarenotyetexperiencedbecause____.

A.youdon’tknowwheretobegin

B.youwanttobeginattheheadinsteadofbeginningatthetail

C.youalwaysaskedquestion

D.youdonottrusttoyourownpowers

4.Whenyoubecomemoreexperiencedyouwill____.

A.neveraskquestion

B.oftenbeginatthetail

C.shouldwritetheendofthestory

D.shouldthinkofthebeginning

5.Thetopicofthepassageis______.

A.Howtodrawahorse

B.Howtowriteastory

C.Howtomakeyourownrules

D.Trusttoyourownpowers

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