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Hehadalongtelephone( ).

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Thepoliceman[halted]thespeedingcartoseeifthedriverwasdrunk.

The( )ofyellowandblueformgreen.

TheImportanceofGoodCommunications

Effectivecommunicationisessentialforallorganizations.Itlinkstheactivitiesofthevariouspartsoftheorganizationandensuresthateveryoneisworkingtowardsacommongoal.Itisalsoextremelyimportantformotivatingemployees.Staffneedtoknowhowtheyaregettingon,whattheyaredoingrightandinwhichareastheycouldimprove.Workingalonecanbeextremelydifficultanditismucheasierifsomeonetakesaninterestandprovidessupport.Employeesneedtounderstandwhytheirjobisimportantandhowitcontributestotheoverallsuccessofthefirm.Personalcommunicationshouldalsoincludetargetsetting.Peopleusuallyrespondwelltogoals,providedtheseareagreedbetweenthemanagerandsubordinateandnotimposed.

However,firmsoftenhavecommunicationproblemsthatcanunderminetheirperformance.Inmanycases,theseproblemsoccurbecausemessagesarepassedoninaninappropriateway.Thereare,ofcourse,severalwaysofconveyinginformationtoothersintheorganizationwhichincludespeakingtothemdirectly,e-mailing,telephoningorsendingamemo.Themostappropriatemethoddependsonwhatexactlyitisyouarecommunicating.Forexample,anythingthatisparticularlysensitiveorconfidential,suchasanemployee'sappraisal,shouldbedoneface-to-face.

Oneofthemainproblemsforseniorexecutivesisthattheydonothavethetimeorresourcesneededtocommunicateeffectively.Inlargecompanies,forexample,itisimpossibleforseniormanagerstomeetanddiscussprogresswitheachemployeeindividually.Obviouslythistaskcanbedelegatedbutatthecostofcreatingagapbetweenseniormanagementandstaff.Asaresult,managersareoftenforcedtouseothermethodsofcommunication,likememosornotes,eveniftheyknowthesearenotnecessarilythemostsuitablemeansofpassingonmessages.

Theuseoftechnology,suchase-mail,mobilephonesandnetworksystems,isspeedingupcommunicationimmensely.However,thisdoesnotmeanthatmoreinvestmentintechnologyautomaticallyprovesbeneficial:systemscanbecomeoutdatedoremployeesmaylackappropriatetraining.Therearemanycommunicationstoolsnowavailablebutafirmcannotaffordallofthem.Evenifitcould,itdoesnotactuallyneedthemall.Thepotentialgainsmustbeweighedupagainstthecosts,andfirmsshouldrealizethatmorecommunicationdoesnotnecessarilymeanbettercommunication."

Asthenumberofpeopleinvolvedinanorganizationincrease,theuseofwrittencommunicationrisesevenfaster.Insteadofaquickconversationtosortsomethingoutnumerousmessagescanbepassedbackwardsandforwards.Thiscanleadtoatremendousamountofpaperworkandisoftenlesseffectivethanface-to-facecommunication.Whenyouareactuallytalkingtosomeoneyoucandiscussthingsuntilyouarehappythattheyhaveunderstoodandfeedbackisimmediate.Withwrittenmessages,however,youareneverquitesurehowitwillbereceivedwhatyouthinkyouhavesaidandwhattheotherpersonthinksyouhavesaidcanbeverydifferent.

Theamountofwritteninformationgeneratedinlargeorganizationstodaycanleadtocommunicationoverload.Somuchinformationisgatheredthatitgetsinthewayofmakingdecisions.Takealookattheaveragemanager'sdeskandyouwillseetheproblem--itisoftencoveredwithletters,reportsandmemos.Thisoverloadcanleadtoinefficiencies.Forexample,managersmaynotbeabletofindtheinformationtheywantwhentheyneedit.Communicationisalsobecomingmoredifficultwiththechangesoccurringinemploymentpatterns.Withmorepeopleworkingpart-timeandworkingathome,managingcommunicationisbecomingincreasinglycomplex.

1.InthefirstparagraphthewriterrecommendsthatcommunicationwithstaffshouldincludeA.somefeedbackontheirjobperformance.

B.anexplanationofhowcompanytargetshavebeenset.

C.informationonpromotionprospectswithinthecompany.

D.anindicationofwhichdutiestheycanexpectassistancewith.areastheycouldimprove

2.Accordingtothewriter,thebestwayofachievingeffectivecommunicationistoA.adaptthemessagetosuitaparticularaudience.

B.makethecontentofmessagesbriefanddirect.

C.selectthemostsuitablemeansofconveyingaparticularmessage.

D.ensurethatinformationistargetedattheappropriategroupofpeople.

3.Whatdoesthewritersayaboutthecommunicationoptionsavailabletoseniormanagers?A.Sendingmemostostaffisoneofthemostefficientmethods.

B.Itisimportanttofindthetimetodiscusscertainmatterswithstaff.

C.Theyshouldincreasetherangeofoptionsthattheyuse.

D.Gettingjuniormanagerstotalktostaffcancreatedifferentproblems.

4.Whatadviceisgivenaboutthecommunicationtoolsmadeavailablebytechnology?A.Aimtolimitstaffuseofcertaincommunicationtools.

B.Evaluatethemintermsoftheexpenditureinvolved.

C.Selectthemonthebasisofthefacilitiestheyoffer.

D.Encouragemorestafftoattendtrainingcoursesintheiruse.

5.Accordingtothewriter,aproblemwithwrittencommunicationisthatA.themessagecanbeinterpreteddifferentlytowhatwasintended.

B.itcanbeeasyforpeopletoignorethecontentsofawrittenmessage.

C.mostpeoplearemorecomfortablewithface-to-facecommunication.

D.itispossibleforcorrespondencetogetlostwithinalargeorganization.

6.Accordingtothearticle,whatistheeffectofreceivinglargeamountsofwritteninformation?A.Itiscounter-productive."

B.Itcausesconflictinacompany.

C.Itleadstochangesinworkpatterns.

D.Itmakesthemainpointsmoredifficulttoidentify.

ReadingComprehension

SectionA

Directions:Therearetenincompletesentencesinthissection.ForeachsentencetherearefourchoicesmarkedA,B,CandD.ChoosetheONEthatbestcompletesthesentence.Thenwritedowntherightanswerinthebracketsforeachsentence.Thissectiontotals10points,onepointforeachsentence.

()1.Wecansupplyallthebicyclesyourequired____________stockandarearrangingshipmentbyM.V.Mermaid.

A.forB.from C.to D.against

()2.Wewouldliketoremindyouthatthe__________L/CmustreachusbeforeMarch10

sothatwecanmakeshipmentingoodtime.

A.coveringB.cover C.coveredD.beingcovered

()3.Wehavereceivedyourletterof28March,___________ustomodifythepreviousarrangementsfortheshipmentofthecaptionedorder.

A.askedB.toask C.beingaskedD.asking

()4.InourletterofMay5,wemade__________clearthatshipmentistobeeffectedinJune.

A.youB.them C.thatD.it

()5.Wealwaysdeal_______________paymentbysightL/C.

A.with B.in C.at D.on

()6.Thisofferis_____________toyourreplyreachingusbeforethe20thofFebruary.

A.subjectingB.subject C.subjectedDtosubject

()7.____________weareappreciatingthegoodqualityofyourblacktea,weregretthatyourpriceappearstobeonthehighside.

A.WhileB.When C.HoweverD.Therefore

()8.Weherebyauthorizeyouto___________onusat60daysaftersighttotheextentofUSD20,000.00.

A.open B.establish C.draw D.build

()9.Ifpartiestoacontractdesiretosettledisputes,anarbitrationclauseisusuallymadeinthecontractwellbeforeadispute_____________.

A.risesB.arisesC.lookD.appear

()10.Somecustomersrequestedusto_____________ourpricebecausetheyconsideredit

toohigh.

A.putdownB.getdownC.takedown D.bringdown

Thestoreisinanideal( )todrawtourists.

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